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      您現在的位置:主頁 > 格調 > 旅行 > 中國西北最完整的明朝佛寺,有“小故宮”美譽,迄今600余年

      中國西北最完整的明朝佛寺,有“小故宮”美譽,迄今600余年

      自佛教傳入中國后,古老的華夏文明史上因宗教藝術和文化而豐富多彩。漢明感夢,初傳其道。在1900多年的歷史長河里,留有了大量遺產。其中,最讓我著迷的就是宗教的建筑之美與石窟的雕刻之精。

      瞿曇寺,位于青海樂都,是我目前遇到的最為古樸的一座寺廟,已有600多年歷史。是青海省唯一的明代早期官式群組建筑,也是西北地區保存最為完整、規模宏大的明朝寺院建筑,有“小故宮”之稱。

      就佛寺而言,官式建筑并不稀有,但稀罕的是這瞿曇寺不僅有“小故宮”美譽,更有值得研究的巨幅彩色壁畫。

      當我第一眼看見這座古老的佛寺時,內心倍感親切和安靜。恰巧夕陽西下,磚木結構的雅致與悠悠歲月的靜好,令這21世紀的文明時光竟有一股古樸的味道與意境,也使我萬萬沒想到它會是一座藏傳佛教格魯派寺院。

      也許本身是對古老的藏文明有著無限敬畏和探索,因而眼前的瞿曇寺在這古老的歷史長河里,成為我旅途中最是難忘的一站。

      它始建于明洪二十五年,當時規模很小,于官隆洞修建了一座小佛堂。后在第二年,明太祖朱元璋賜名“瞿曇寺”,并下敕諭擴建修繕瞿曇寺。

      繼明太祖之后,明成祖、明仁宗、明宣宗又先后下了幾道敕諭繼續修建瞿曇寺,四位皇帝共下了7道敕諭,歷時36年完成。

      后在明朝宣德二年,寺院仿北京紫禁城太和殿修建了一座隆國殿,使瞿曇寺更加宏偉壯觀。因而對于當地人而言,走進瞿曇寺,猶如參觀了一次北京故宮。但太和殿屢建屢毀,不僅歷經了歲月的打磨,也承受了歷史變故,如今的它已然不是初建時的模樣。

      但隆國殿至今保存完整,是整座寺院最高最壯觀的建筑物,也是最早的明代宮式建筑,其匾額為宣德皇帝御書。由此可見,瞿曇寺式一座具有皇家建筑的皇家寺院。

      殿內奉大持金剛佛,兩側列十八羅漢,內墻繪制釋迦摩尼、菩薩、比丘和歡喜佛壁畫,這些壁畫不僅精美,而且完整。

      更為重要的是,殿內還有極其珍貴的象背云鼓、楠木“皇帝萬萬歲”木牌等文物。是參觀瞿曇寺千萬不可錯過的大殿,也不可匆匆行過,一定要慢下腳步,靜下心,在酥油茶香中感受文明的古老,聆聽著禪音繚繞。

      但除了這隆國殿,寺院的山門、金剛殿、瞿曇殿、寶光殿等都屬宮殿式建筑,在這青海地區是非常少見的。從邁入山門,寺院便就以地勢高低錯落的格局,向我展現了更具有規模的宏偉建筑,包括有御碑亭、大小鐘樓、回廊、寶塔、配殿、經堂等等。

      但最值得探究的還是“七十二間水廳”,即為廂廊壁畫,面積約有400平方米,壁畫內容多為佛教傳說故事包括歷代皇帝扶植瞿曇寺的內容,但不論是人物形象還是技法純熟,都堪稱是瞿曇寺藝術之最。雖然歷經了600多年,但色彩依舊鮮艷奪目。

      在日落余暉下,絲絲光芒穿過木格窗,若隱若現的古老壁畫令人安寧。尤其在這幾乎沒有游客的平和環境里,我的身影恍如是人世間的一顆凡塵,滾落在光束中,對眼前的一切充滿無限敬畏。

      不論是建筑,壁畫、石雕、木刻,還是版畫、磚雕、瓦當,心中對于古寺的想象即為眼前的這座瞿曇寺。它背倚羅漢山,前臨瞿曇河,面朝鳳凰山,藏匿于雄渾而清幽的風水形勝之地。它安靜、古樸,沒有塵世喧囂。它精美、雅致,于長河中沉淀了600余年古韻。

      面對像這樣保存完整的600多年的古寺,在今天是非常難得一見。且寺內文物也是極其豐富,包括有明代漢藏文對照御制碑、明清匾額、明宣德二年制造的青銅巨鐘、香爐、象牙佛珠、石雕米拉日巴像、帝王所賜金印等等。

      有意思的是,瞿曇寺雖為藏傳佛寺,但寺院建筑基本采用漢式廟宇形制。全寺由前、中、后三進院落組成,并在一條中軸線上,沿著中軸線,漫步于內,仿佛一切苦惱飛去了山門之外,使我倍感心中舒暢安寧,即便暮色蒼茫,仍是不舍離開。

      【旅游信息】

      1、西寧汽車站(火車站對面)乘坐到樂都的長途客車,路程80公里左右,票價10元左右,每20分鐘左右一班;抵達樂都后,乘坐前往瞿曇寺的短途班車,車程30分鐘,單程5元。

      2、寺廟門票50元。

      3、寺院下午五六點會閉門,許多重要大殿也不再開放。

      4、寺院壁畫通常禁止拍照,包括國隆殿也不可拍照,若要拍照,一定要得到師父允可。

      5、進入寺內保持安靜,不可大聲疾呼,更不能跑跳打鬧。

      6、文明游客,文明旅游,對一切文物要有自覺保護意識。

      TAG:★★★ 友情提示:點擊圖片可進入下一頁 ★★★
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